2. The conditions and procedures applicable to the passage of warships, submarines and other underwater vessels into territorial waters are established on the basis of agreements between the flag state and the coastal state or, failing that, the legislation of the coastal state. 11. Bilateral and multilateral marine scientific research is conducted by mutual agreement between the parties concerned. 3. The delimitation of inland and territorial waters between the riparian states is carried out in agreement between these states, taking due account of the principles and norms of international law. However, in 2018, there has been an important dynamic of clarifying the legal status of the Caspian Sea. In August 2018, the five coastal states signed the Actau Agreement (text of the agreement) which provides that each will have 15 nautical miles of fishing area, in addition to an additional 10 miles, although the text of the agreement does not delineate these limits. If, in the end, it is established that the baseline must be measured on the coasts of each coastal state, it was a surprising concession from Iran, which has the smallest coast of the Caspian and where some political decision-makers would still be angry at the loss of control of the Caspian Sea, as a result of Iran`s defeat in the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828. For his part, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that the agreement had “historical significance.” The parties operate in the Caspian Sea for the navigation, harvest, exploitation and protection of aquatic biological resources, exploration and exploitation of the seabed and soil resources, and other activities in accordance with this agreement, other agreements between the parties in accordance with this convention and their national legislation. 1. The provisions of this agreement may be amended or supplemented by the agreement of all contracting parties. The most important result of the Convention is, in short, “caspian for the Caspians.” All aspects related to the exploitation of the water mass, whether it is a means of transit or in terms of the use of its energy reserves, fall exclusively within the jurisdiction of the five coastal states.
The sharing of surface resources, seabeds and subsl soils outside the territorial waters of each Member State is an essential agreement with greater consequences for the region and for those wishing to invest in this resource-rich region. Every coastal state is right when it comes to using energy reserves in common areas. (10) the right of free access of the Caspian Sea to other seas and the ocean and in accordance with the generally accepted principles and norms of international law and international agreements between the parties concerned, with due consideration for the legitimate interests of the transit party in order to promote international trade and economic development; 1.